# 出行系统最优配置下共享停车选择及泊位分配

(江苏大学 汽车与交通工程学院，江苏 镇江 212013)

## 1 停车选择均衡及泊位分配模型

### 1.1 问题描述

Figure 1 Schematic diagram of shared period of berth

Figure 2 Schematic diagram of user parking selection

### 1.2 停车选择均衡模型

Ca,k=α(tk+ta,k)+c(wk)+γa,k

(1)

ta,k=tav+(tor-tac)。

(2)

Cb,k=α(tk+tb,k)+c(wk)+γb,k

(3)

sb,k=fb,k/nb,k

(4)

k位置非共享停车的巡航时间为该位置停车占用率函数，即

tb,k=h(sb,k)。

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

fi,k≥0,∀k∈{1,2,…,K}；

(9)

fa,kna,k,∀k∈{1,2,…,K}；

(10)

fb,knb,k,∀k∈{1,2,…,K}。

(11)

### 1.3 泊位分配整数规划模型

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

zmnqzjnq,j=1,2,…,J;

(17)

znqdnq,n=1,2,…,N,q=1,2,…,Q

(18)

## 2 算法求解

Figure 3 Algorithm flow chart

## 3 算例分析

### 3.1 泊位分配整数规划模型验证

Table 1 Parking demand information of user reservation

Figure 4 Shared parking request allocation results

### 3.2 用户出行选择及泊位分配分析

Table 2 Basic data of parking area

Figure 5 Example network diagram

Figure 6 Convergence verification

Figure 7 Parking flow change

(19)

Figure 8 Profit of the platform with the minimization of travel expenses

Figure 9 Shared parking and non-shared parking flow evolution

## 4 结论

[1] 张雪妍, 贺锋. 基于累积前景理论的组合出行交通分配模型[J]. 郑州大学学报(工学版), 2020, 41(3): 91-96.

ZHANG X Y, HE F. Traffic assignment model with combined modes based on cumulative prospect theory[J]. Journal of Zhengzhou university (engineering science), 2020, 41(3): 91-96.

[2] HASSINE S B, MRAIHI R, LACHIHEB A, et al. Modelling parking type choice behavior[EB/OL]. (2021-09-22)[2022-03-20]. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2046043021000721.

[3] WANG A G, GUAN H Z, QIN Z T, et al. Study on the intention of private parking space owners of different levels of cities to participate in shared parking in China[J]. Discrete dynamics in nature and society, 2021, 2021: 1-16.

[4] 田丽君, 杨茜, 黄海军, 等. 基于累积前景理论的出行方式选择模型及实证[J]. 系统工程理论与实践, 2016, 36(7): 1778-1785.

TIAN L J, YANG Q, HUANG H J, et al. The cumulative prospect theory-based travel mode choice model and its empirical verification[J]. Systems engineering-theory & practice, 2016, 36(7): 1778-1785.

[5] FANG S S, YAO X S, ZHANG J Q, et al. Grey correlation analysis on travel modes and their influence factors[J]. Procedia engineering, 2017, 174: 347-352.

[6] SHAO C Y, YANG H, ZHANG Y, et al. A simple re-servation and allocation model of shared parking lots[J]. Transportation research part C: emerging technologies, 2016, 71: 303-312.

[7] JIANG B W, FAN Z P. Optimal allocation of shared parking slots considering parking unpunctuality under a platform-based management approach[J]. Transportation research part E: logistics and transportation review, 2020, 142: 102062.

[8] WANG S F, LI Z H, XIE N. A reservation and allocation model for shared-parking addressing the uncertainty in dri-vers′ arrival/departure time[J]. Transportation research part C: emerging technologies, 2022, 135: 103484.

[9] 张水潮, 蔡逸飞, 黄锐, 等. 基于预约需求的共享停车平台泊位分配方法[J]. 交通运输系统工程与信息, 2020, 20(3): 137-143, 162.

ZHANG S C, CAI Y F, HUANG R, et al. Shared parking space allocation method considering reservation demand[J]. Journal of transportation systems engineering and information technology, 2020, 20(3): 137-143, 162.

[10] 姚恩建, 张正超, 张嘉霖, 等. 居住区共享泊位资源优化配置模型及算法[J]. 交通运输系统工程与信息, 2017, 17(2): 160-167.

YAO E J, ZHANG Z C, ZHANG J L, et al. A model and algorithm for optimization of the utilization of residential shared parking slots[J]. Journal of transportation systems engineering and information technology, 2017, 17(2): 160-167.

[11] LAI M H, CAI X Q, HU Q. Market design for commute-driven private parking lot sharing[J]. Transportation research part C: emerging technologies, 2021, 124: 102915.

[12] 胥晶晶. 考虑泊位共享的居住区停车预约分配模型研究[D]. 西安: 长安大学, 2019.

XU J J. Study on parking reservation allocation model in residential area of considering berth sharing[D]. Xi′an: Chang′an University, 2019.

[13] 段满珍, 杨兆升, 张林, 等. 个性化诱导下的居住区共享停车泊位分配模型[J]. 东北大学学报(自然科学版), 2017, 38(2): 174-179.

DUAN M Z, YANG Z S, ZHANG L, et al. Parking spaces allocation model of residential areas sharing parking based on personalized guidance[J]. Journal of northeastern university (natural science), 2017, 38(2): 174-179.

# Shared Parking Selection and Berth Allocation for Optimal Configuration of Travel System

SUN Chao, LI Shijie, ZHANG Peng, YIN Haowei, CAI Yuhang

(School of Automotive and Traffic Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China)

Abstract: In order to improve the efficiency of urban travel and parking supply-demand matching, an integrated model of parking mode selection and berth allocation for optimal configuration of travel system was explored. Firstly, a parking choice equilibrium model considering the travel cost of shared parking users and non-shared parking users was constructed. A descent algorithm was designed to solve the parking choice equilibrium model. Secondly, for shared parking users, the integrated berth allocation integer programming model of shared parking platform operators, berth suppliers and berth demanders was established. The travel choice model and the berth allocation model were linked through the decision variables of shared parking allocation. The example showed that the reception rate of the proposed berth allocation model to the user reservation request reached 83%, and the model could be effectively applied to the actual parking problem. Travel users prefered to choose parking lots with short driving distance and walking distance. When the growth gap between shared parking and non-shared parking traffic was the largest, the scale of parking requests could not only enable operators to obtain higher profits, but also improve the balance between shared parking and non-shared parking traffic.

Keywords: urban transportation; shared parking; parking balance; integer programming; berth allocation

doi：10.13705/j.issn.1671-6833.2023.01.011